OVIEDO's bourgeois culture is a contrast to the working-class ethos of its neighbours. As the Asturian capital, it has long been fairly wealthy, a history that can be traced through its plethora of grand administrative and religious buildings, lovingly restored and rendering the city among the most attractive in the north.
Around the cathedral, enclosed by scattered sections of the medieval town walls, a compact, attractive quarter preserves the remains of Old Oviedo. As at Gijón, much was destroyed in the Civil War when Republican Asturian miners laid siege to the Nationalist garrison; the defenders were relieved by a Gallego detachment when on the brink of surrender. All the better for being completely pedestrianized, the old centre is a knot of squares and narrow streets built in warm yellow stone, while the newer part is redeemed by a huge public park right in its centre. Throughout the city are excellent bars and restaurants, many aimed at the lively student population.
Oviedo also boasts three small churches that rank among the most remarkable in Spain, built in a style unique to Asturias. All date from the first half of the ninth century, a period of almost total isolation for the Asturian kingdom, which was then just 65km by 50km in area and the only part of Spain under Christian rule. Oviedo became the centre of this outpost in 810, when it became the base for King Alfonso II, son of the victorious Pelayo.